COVID-19 & Vitamin D Research Tools

COVID-19 & Vitamin D - Overview

COVID-19 is a virus which has killed millions of people globally meaning there is a current need to carry out research in order to develop therapies to help treat the world wide pandemic. Vitamin D has three main protective mechanisms including keeping tight junctions which prevent cells infiltrating into the lungs, its ability to destroy enveloped viruses like COVID-19 by stimulating components such as defensins and cathelicidin LL-37 and lastly by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in the cytokine storm in COVID-19 infections.

Vitamin D

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is found in animal foods like fish and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) can be obtained from plants like edible mushrooms where it is converted from ergosterol (provitamin D2). The majority of vitamin D is endogenously synthesized in the epidermis after ultraviolet or solar radiation exposure. In the liver both vitamin D2 and D3 are hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and individuals are said to be vitamin D deficient if they have 25OHD levels of <30 nmol/L or <12 ng/ml. The enzyme CYP27B1 is used to convert 25OHD into 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (calcitriol) which is the final metabolically active metabolite. The vitamin D binding protein binds to vitamin D metabolites and transports them in the blood.

Vitamin D ELISA kits

ELISA Kits

Assay genie offers a wide variety of human and animal ELISA kits which can help with researching the link between COVID-19 and vitamin D. Assay Genie provides ELISA kits such as vitamin D3 ELISA, vitamin D receptor ELISA, CYP27B1 ELISA, vitamin D binding protein ELISA, calcitriol ELISA and DHVD3 ELISA kits.

Recombinant Proteins

Recombinant proteins are useful products which enable research in areas such as biological function and disease status.

Antibodies

Antibodies are useful research tools for analyzing biological functions of components in the body and the CYP27B1 antibody can help with researching the link between COVID-19 and vitamin D.

SKU Product name Conjugatio

CAB1716

Unconjugated

CAB11737

Unconjugated

CAB11743

Unconjugated

CAB2194

Unconjugated

PACO01693

Unconjugated

PACO05294

Unconjugated

PACO21289

Unconjugated

PACO21612

Unconjugated

PACO03123

Unconjugated

PACO05293

Unconjugated

PACO24077

Unconjugated

PACO24213

Unconjugated

Oxidative Response

Vitamin D is able to regulate both the oxidative and immune response against COVID-19 infections in the body. Upon pathogen recognition, vitamin D can help to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Immune Response

Vitamin D is known for downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6, IFN-β and TNF-alpha are cytokines involved in the cytokine storm during a COVID-19 response. As well as this, people who are deficient in vitamin D have been shown to have high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). Vitamin D also modulates IL-8 activity in the body and it stimulates cathelicidin LL-37 which targets enveloped viruses like COVID-19.

TNF-alpha

IFN-beta

IL-6

IL-8

CRP

LL-37 ELISA

SKU Product name Assay type

HUES03304

ELISA